The term ” tumor cell reprogramming” is used to define the transformation of the tumor cells into normal cells fully differentiated.
The hypotheses that tumor cells can be corrected by factors of stem cell differentiation are based on evidence that the tumor development is cancelled by the embryonic microenvironment.
On the basis of this rationale embryonic differentiators have been used, taken at different stages of development of both the zebrafish embryo and from human stem cells derived from the umbilical cord. These differentiation factors inhibit the in vitro growth of different cancer cell lines, mainly caused by the increase of the proteins p53 and pRb in the cycle of cell regulation. These proteins in fact induce the death, in scientific terms apoptosis, of diseased cells.
The treatment with these factors increases the apoptosis and the differentiation related to caspase 3.
This is achieved through the activation of the pathway of apoptosis dependent on p53 with the simultaneous normalization of the percentage of the E cadherin and beta-catenin.
Also other extracts of oocytes from amphibians or human stem cells from the umbilical cord can reprogram and correct the alterations in cell cultures of lung cancer and to mitigate their growth.
A product prepared for the treatment of humans with the factors of differentiation of the zebrafish at very low doses, has produced favorable results on lung cancers and on hepatocellular carcinoma.
Other interventions of reprogramming on cell lines of lung cancers, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, were then described by various authors.
Finally the prospects for these new technologies are discussed where they define cancer as: “the loss of differentiation of the tumor cells”.